fromkeys(map(ord, string. To create variables by string, you can use - globals() function , which returns the dictionary of global namespace, and then create a new element in that dictionary for your variable and set the value to the value you want. Like and share. How to remove non numeric characters from a cell containing text string with an excel formula. See the cookbook for some advanced strategies. Nov 17, 2015 · This video is a tutorial of how to remove a specific character from a string in Python. The Question Has Been Answered at The Link Below View Answered Question formating a. I want to use the Python field calculator to remove the hyphen from a field column. Pandas has been built on top of numpy package which was written in C language which is a low level language. 0, it is assumed that all strings are unicode strings, and that the use of the word 'string' in the context of this document will generally refer to a Python 3. it means you take a Series type from the DataFrame to use. Pandas Replace. how do i remove the commas from numbers? : excel. To do this, I have been utilizing pandas. import modules. Note that this routine does not filter a dataframe on its contents. Its really helpful if you want to find the names starting with a particular character or search for a pattern…. For example, to remove the first character from the string (its index is 0) take the slice S[1:]. None maps the character that will be removed. remove(obj) Parameters. This post explains that how to remove non-numeric characters (numbers) from a text string in one cell in excel 2016. How to remove special characers from a column of dataframe using module re? here I want to remove the special characters from tagged python string pandas or. if you set it to 11, then the function will take (at most) the first 11 characters. find will return -1 and then s [:-1] will lop off the last character: >>> s = "abcdef" >>> s [:s. I have a string, which contains "\n" or "\r" or "\t" Can any one tell how to remove these charecters from my string? Thanks Avinash [^o)]. once tokenized, we want to remove common words that convey minimal meaning such as “the” and “and”. So the program must be able to isolate these two letters and then use conditional structures to determine how to proceed. The printed verson of a unicode can be ambiguous because of invisible or unprintable characters. Python Remove Character from String using translate() Python string translate() function replace each character in the string using the given translation table. Now iterate over this sequence and for each index access the character from string using operator [] i. Sort a dataframe in Pandas based on multiple columns; Remove NaN values from a Pandas series; Concatenate Pandas dataframes (like a union function in SQL) Search pandas column with string contains and does not contain; Create Pandas dataframe with random numbers; Remove duplicate columns by name in Pandas; Dynamically update a plot in iPython. These methods works on the same line as Pythons re module. In python, it is implemented in the re module. If the first two characters of string are both single quotation marks or both double quotation marks, and the third character is not the same type of quotation mark, then DEQUOTE returns a result with a length of zero. The end goal is to use this code in the python code block in the Calculate Field GP tool. A2A: Strings are immutable in Python, which means they cannot be changed. We do this by substituting :s* with an empty string "". The last character has index -1, the second to last character has index -2, and so on. strip() method does both. read_csv with Python 3. Verbs end in either -ar, -er or -ir. First, we remove the colon and any whitespace characters between it and the name. isnumeric() for each element of the Series/Index. getting started with data analysis in python - codeburst. The regex checks for a dash(-) followed by a numeric digit (represented by \d) and replace that with an empty string and the inplace parameter set as True will update the existing series. Mar 04, 2019 · Access characters in string by index; Check if a string contains a sub string; Iterate over the characters in string; Find occurrence a sub-string in string; Compare strings in Python; Replace characters in a string; Remove characters from a string by Index; Find frequency of each character in string; Count occurrences of a characters in string. Hello Experts, i have hundreds of txt files that i need to work with for a specific project. how to Replace a new line character "\n" in a string with space or , Updating Character String with sql shell script for extracting out the shortest substring from given 1st and last char. Sep 03, 2018 · Remove the target variable from the training set We can use this to find the numeric or string columns. Subject: Re: Unable to convert pandas object to string (sorry for top posting) Try using fillna('') to convert np. We can use this method to replace characters we want to remove with an empty string. Apr 29, 2016 · In [4]: print df. Selecting pandas data using "iloc" The iloc indexer for Pandas Dataframe is used for integer-location based indexing / selection by position. Remove(Int32, Int32) Returns a new string in which a specified number of characters in the current instance beginning at a specified position have been deleted. People on GC seem to like putting horrible characters in their aliases, and this causes some issues for me. Before choosing a method, take a look at the Benchmark result and the Framework Compatibility. filter¶ DataFrame. On an ASCII based system, if the control codes are stripped, the resultant string would have all of its characters within the range of 32 to 126 decimal on the ASCII table. To do that we can create various queries using SQL functions. Apr 16, 2006 · Note on string encodings: When discussing this PEP in the context of Python 3. Other than commas in CSV files, Tab-separated and Semicolon-separated data is popular also. Remove ends of string entries in pandas DataFrame column. nan, which is a float. I have generated a dataframe with User id, Name and User interest from the export of the social network database. Python Remove Character from String using translate() Python string translate() function replace each character in the string using the given translation table. We've been using single line comments up until now to help explain what's happening within our code snippets. Right now entries look like 1,000 or 12,456. The chararray class exists for backwards compatibility with Numarray, it is not recommended for new development. it means you take a Series type from the DataFrame to use. I had a similar problem. Following is the syntax for remove() method − list. Tom Augspurger, one of the maintainers of Python’s Pandas library for data analysis, has an awesome series of blog posts on writing idiomatic Pandas code. This step by step tutorial will assist all levels of Excel users in removing characters from the right side of a cell or text string. python,loops,pandas. Series with data 0 [00115840, 00110005, 001000033, 00116000 1 [00267285, 00263627, 00267010, 0026513 2 [00335595, 00350750] I want to remove leading zeros from the series. how to Replace a new line character "\n" in a string with space or , Updating Character String with sql shell script for extracting out the shortest substring from given 1st and last char. Firstly, the DataFrame can contain data that is: a Pandas DataFrame; a Pandas Series: a one-dimensional labeled array capable of holding any data type with axis labels or index. remove(x): x not in list exception. The printed verson of a unicode can be ambiguous because of invisible or unprintable characters. Hi everyone, in this Python Split String By Character tutorial, we will learn about how to split a string in python. import pandas as pd import numpy as np. To do that we can create various queries using SQL functions. Python regex pattern can also be used to find if each string contains a digit or not and converting them to "". Perhaps most importantly, these methods exclude missing/NA values automatically. strip (self, to_strip=None) [source] ¶ Remove leading and trailing characters. Remove consecutive spaces with split and join. Series and Index are equipped with a set of string processing methods that make it easy to operate on each element of the array. Next, we create a Python set named exclude from string. In the particular case where you know the number of positions that you want to remove from the dataframe column, you can use string indexing inside a lambda function to get rid of that parts: Last character: data['result'] = data['result']. We will try column wise and row wise access options, dropping rows and columns, getting the summary of data frames with methods like min, max etc. We have "alter table" syntax from Oracle to add data columns in-place in this form:. I got the output by using the below code, but I hope we can do the same with less code — perhaps in a single line. Sep 26, 2010 · Remove mid characters from string. If end is not included, or if the specified value exceeds the string length, it is assumed to be equal to the length of the string by default. string_ or numpy. head() filename A B C fn1. An example of a Series object is one column from a DataFrame. remove(x): x not in list exception. I could probably remove them in Excel and re-save but I want to know how I can transform the column to remove non-numeric characters so 'objects' like $1,299. pandas: powerful Python data analysis toolkit, Release 0. Sep 13, 2017 · The Multiple Select widget doesn't work and the console gives me back "ValueError: expected an element of List(String), got 'T1' "0 Answers Processing a large number of columns with Pandas 1 Answer. The iloc indexer syntax is data. Reading CSV Files With pandas To show some of the power of pandas CSV capabilities, I've created a slightly more complicated file to read, called hrdata. Here string stands for any string containing characters other than zero "0". A2A: Strings are immutable in Python, which means they cannot be changed. join(i for i in text if ord(i)<. In this lesson, we'll invoke the. How to remove the ESC characters in black background from Notepad++ v6. Firstly, the DataFrame can contain data that is: a Pandas DataFrame; a Pandas Series: a one-dimensional labeled array capable of holding any data type with axis labels or index. strip() family of methods to remove leading and trailing whitespace from strings in a Series. People on GC seem to like putting horrible characters in their aliases, and this causes some issues for me. We will check each character of the string using for loop. notnull()] Filtering String in Pandas Dataframe. Real-world examples of this include internal abbreviations such as FKA ( Formerly Known As ) or suffixes such as Jr. Example You can use the CleanInput method defined in this example to strip potentially harmful characters that have been entered into a text field that accepts user input. fromkeys(map(ord, string. However, one thing it doesn’t support out of the box is parallel processing across multiple cores. 6 change Windows filesystem encoding from "mbcs" to "UTF-8". apply ()’ with lambda. There is a lot of nice functionality built into the method, but when the number of dataframe rows/columns gets relatively large, to_string starts to tank. Also we will convert a python dictionary into a pandas data frame. As it can be seen in the name, str. I read my csv file as pandas dataframe. Hi! So, I came up with the following code to extract Twitter data from JSON and create a data frame with several columns: # Import libraries import json import pandas as pd # Extract data from JSON tw. The printed verson of a unicode can be ambiguous because of invisible or unprintable characters. read_csv with Python 3. Indexing DataFrames with Pandas. To manipulate strings and character values, python has several in-built functions. lstrip() method removes whitespace from the left side (beginning) of a string, the. import modules. Str function in Pandas offer fast vectorized string operations for Series and Pandas. replace("e", "") "Hllo popl" If you want to remove multiple characters from a string in a single line, it's better to use regular expressions. (We want ^ to avoid cases where [starts off the string. Splitting string is a very common operation, especially in text based environment like - World Wide Web or operating in a text file. Remove Space in Python - (strip Leading, Trailing, Duplicate spaces in string) Remove space in python string / strip space in python string : In this Tutorial we will learn how to remove or strip leading , trailing and duplicate spaces in python with lstrip() , rstrip() and strip() Function with an example for each. Removing any string from within a string in Pandas Often, you'll find that you need to remove one or more characters from within a string. obj − This is the object to be removed from the list. Finding and replacing characters in Pandas columns. 6 in a Windows system. raw_data =. The ^ character matches the start of a string, and the parentheses denote a capturing group, which signals to Pandas that we want to extract that part of the regex. Str returns a string object. How to remove the ESC characters in black background from Notepad++ v6. This tutorial outlines various string (character) functions used in Python. Finding the index of a character in python string. As you can see from these examples, the Java String class replaceAll method makes it easy to strip/remove characters from one String and assign the resulting output to another String. raw_data =. This an extended question from this topic. Select the text string cells that you will remove numbers from, and click Kutools > Text > Remove Characters. Hello All, We are supposed to create a Word doc file for our client that is to be used for printing a large list of names and addresses. com/file/d/1b9Z1jdStC. Sep 03, 2018 · Remove the target variable from the training set We can use this to find the numeric or string columns. strip¶ Series. I should remove all those symbols. You will gain more clarity once you start with the tutorial. # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-""" Collection of query wrappers / abstractions to both facilitate data retrieval and to reduce dependency on DB-specific API. Any good ideas on how to clean the names? I´ve put all my allowed characters in a string array. strip() family of methods to remove leading and trailing whitespace from strings in a Series. download python remove all special characters except spaces free and unlimited. replace String can be a character sequence or regular expression. Import modules. Today, one of the developers come to me and asked me the question that is there any T-SQL function that he could use to remove everything before and after a specific character in string. If you want to remove the last character from the text string in Cell B1, you can use the LEN function to combine with the LEFT function to create an excel formula. punctuation), None)#Dictionary with punctuation to be removed no_punct_s = s. Remove ends of string entries in pandas DataFrame column. Similarly if you omit the first parameter, then Python takes the slice from the beginning of the string. I am a data scientist with a decade of experience applying statistical learning, artificial intelligence, and software engineering to political, social, and humanitarian efforts -- from election monitoring to disaster relief. # Remove non-ASCII characters:. First, we remove the colon and any whitespace characters between it and the name. Quote characters are used if the data in a column may contain the separating character. In other words, remove all consecutive same characters except one. Jun 19, 2017 · Processing Multiple Pandas DataFrame Columns in Parallel Mon, Jun 19, 2017 Introduction. fromkeys(map(ord, string. Today, one of the developers come to me and asked me the question that is there any T-SQL function that he could use to remove everything before and after a specific character in string. Dec 11, 2017 · Python Server Side Programming Programming The lstrip() method will remove leading whitespaces, newline and tab characters on a string beginning. Hi! So, I came up with the following code to extract Twitter data from JSON and create a data frame with several columns: # Import libraries import json import pandas as pd # Extract data from JSON tw. Str function in Pandas offer fast vectorized string operations for Series and Pandas. How to remove part of a string in Pandas dataframe? You just want to cut the last 5 characters off? Use standard string slicing: df[0]. Please try again later. Quote characters are used if the data in a column may contain the separating character. On a non-ASCII based system,. When the combination of characters in the chars argument mismatches the character of the string in the left, it stops removing the leading characters. People on GC seem to like putting horrible characters in their aliases, and this causes some issues for me. Its really helpful if you want to find the names starting with a particular character or search for a pattern…. import re import pandas as pd. However, there are times when you will have data in a basic list or dictionary and want to populate a DataFrame. You can use the LEFT function to extract the left-most number of characters, and the length of the characters that you want to extract is returned by the formula LEN(B1)-1. Real-world examples of this include internal abbreviations such as FKA ( Formerly Known As ) or suffixes such as Jr. index() method is used to search and return lowest index of a substring in. That is, to remove the last character from the string, you can use slice S[:-1]. import pandas as pd The "pd" is an alias or abbreviation which will be used as a shortcut to access or call pandas functions. 3 Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Python list method remove() searches for the given element in the list and removes the first matching element. Python Remove Character from String using translate() Python string translate() function replace each character in the string using the given translation table. I have a csv file with a "Prices" column. split to split each string on white space, then use str. char module provides a set of vectorized string operations for arrays of type numpy. Python is a great language for doing data analysis, primarily because of the fantastic ecosystem of data-centric Python packages. This is a much more serious test and we start to see the size of the python interpreter process grow to accomodate the data structures used in the computation. I'm trying to make a verb conjugator for Spanish. Tom Augspurger, one of the maintainers of Python’s Pandas library for data analysis, has an awesome series of blog posts on writing idiomatic Pandas code. newdf = df[df. On an ASCII based system, if the control codes are stripped, the resultant string would have all of its characters within the range of 32 to 126 decimal on the ASCII table. of times in C Program. plot(kind=bar, stacked=True) 16 Chapter 1. Learn more about data acquisition, data import Statistics and Machine Learning Toolbox, Data Acquisition Toolbox. b) After that, you can apply the string changes and/or deal with the NaN objects. If it is not a string, then it will return the original value. Flexible and powerful data analysis / manipulation library for Python, providing labeled data structures similar to R data. These text files are in folder c:\textfiles\ i need a python script that will remove any special. If we leave off the last position value, like 0:, it's assumed we mean the last row or column in the DataFrame. Hey, Scripting Guy! How can I remove all the non-alphabetic characters in a string?— CD Hey, CD. what you're doing takes everything but the last 4 characters. # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-""" Collection of query wrappers / abstractions to both facilitate data retrieval and to reduce dependency on DB-specific API. That is, to remove the last character from the string, you can use slice S[:-1]. fromkeys(map(ord, string. In the end a new string is created from a "trimmed" array as there may be whitespace characters left at the end of the string due to the inplace substitution of characters. 061834 This is caused by PR #11942. Python Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Python program to remove the nth index character from a nonempty string. ) Let’s see what happens when we run this regex across our dataset: >>>. The remove() method takes a single element as an argument and removes it from the list. Python has quite a few methods that string objects can call to perform frequency occurring task (related to string). remove spaces inside the string - net-informations. The first comparison is between the TRIM and TRIMN functions. The last character has index -1, the second to last character has index -2, and so on. Active 3 years, rstrip can remove more characters,. Python Program to Remove Punctuations From a String. These methods works on the same line as Pythons re module. how to remove. Series and Index are equipped with a set of string processing methods that make it easy to operate on each element of the array. Whats New pandas: powerful Python data analysis toolkit, Release 0. This article will discuss the basic pandas data types (aka dtypes), how they map to python and numpy data types and the options for converting from one pandas type to another. How to remove sign from a column in python download how to remove sign from a column in python free and unlimited. A new copy of Team column is created with 2 blank spaces in both start and the end. Then, we remove whitespace characters and the angle bracket on the other side of the name, again substituting it with an empty string. I am just going to use the Twitter sentiment. Reading CSV Files With pandas To show some of the power of pandas CSV capabilities, I've created a slightly more complicated file to read, called hrdata. There is a lot of nice functionality built into the method, but when the number of dataframe rows/columns gets relatively large, to_string starts to tank. Hi All, I need to find a way to remove all letters and special characters from a string so that all i am left with is numbers using python. filter (self, items=None, like=None, regex=None, axis=None) [source] ¶ Subset rows or columns of dataframe according to labels in the specified index. This Python list method does not return any value but removes the given object. Pandas stores all of its string columns as object which have a one character string. Return true if all characters in the string are digits and there is at least one character, false otherwise. Jun 13, 2017 · "You rarely want to use DataFrame. replace() function in pandas – replace a string in dataframe python In this tutorial we will learn how to replace a string or substring in a column of a dataframe in python pandas with an alternative string. Convert a column in pandas dataframe from String to Float. it means you take a Series type from the DataFrame to use. lstrip() method removes whitespace from the left side (beginning) of a string, the. The default value is 1. slice(0, -5). ) Let's see what happens when we run this regex across our dataset: >>>. For some examples of string manipulation and regular expressions in action at a larger scale, see Pandas: Labeled Column-oriented Data, where we look at applying these sorts of expressions across tables of string data within the Pandas package. Series and Index are equipped with a set of string processing methods that make it easy to operate on each element of the array. for example, convert a number. Lets take x as string without a vowel if there is no vowel in the string the code will automatically exit but if there is a vowel in the string ('a','e','i','o','u') it will remove all the vowels present in the string and will print new string (newstr) having no vowels in it. To remove all spaces from string or sentence in python, you have to ask from user to enter a string and start removing all the spaces from that string and finally display the string without any spaces as shown in the program given here. Pandas str. Public Function ReturnAlpha(ByVar sString As String) As String Dim i As Integer For i = 1 To Len(sString) If Mid(sString, i, 1) Like "[A-Za-z]" Then ReturnAlpha = ReturnAlpha + Mid(sString, i, 1) End If Next i End Function WinBatch ; Remove non-letters from a string, assuming space as non-letter character. punctuation), None)#Dictionary with punctuation to be removed no_punct_s = s. Pandas provide a method to split string around a passed separator/delimiter. Convert numeric column to character in pandas python (integer to string) Convert character column to numeric in pandas python (string to integer) random sampling in pandas python – random n rows; Quantile and Decile rank of a column in pandas python; Percentile rank of a column in pandas python – (percentile value) Get the percentage of a. So the program must be able to isolate these two letters and then use conditional structures to determine how to proceed. In ASCII, the control codes have decimal codes 0 through to 31 and 127. The default value is 1. Count the number of occurrences of a specific character in a string; Remove blanks from a string; Remove non-letters from a string; Remove non-numbers from a string; Replace \r\n with the (br) tag; Replace or remove all occurrences of a string; Reverse a string word by word; Reverse characters in a string; Trim whitespace (spaces) from a string. If you like my posts feel free to comment. replace only '-' values with nan, don't remove minus. This an extended question from this topic. VSP Doctor's Name2. This is equivalent to running the Python string method str. newdf = df[df. python,loops,pandas. 23 b 3 NaN NaN b 4 NaN NaN b 5 NaN NaN b 6 12. If end is not included, or if the specified value exceeds the string length, it is assumed to be equal to the length of the string by default. Remove Selected Characters from Character Value You can also specify a character to be removed in the COMPRESS function. I am a data scientist with a decade of experience applying statistical learning, artificial intelligence, and software engineering to political, social, and humanitarian efforts -- from election monitoring to disaster relief. Also worth noting is that both % and # have %% and ## versions, which match the longest version of the given pattern instead of the shortest. slice(0, -5). Tom Augspurger, one of the maintainers of Python’s Pandas library for data analysis, has an awesome series of blog posts on writing idiomatic Pandas code. # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-""" Collection of query wrappers / abstractions to both facilitate data retrieval and to reduce dependency on DB-specific API. 6 in a Windows system. Return Value. # Remove non-ASCII characters:. Jun 15, 2018 · Str function in Pandas offer fast vectorized string operations for Series and Pandas. There are several ways to create an array in NumPy like np. With the use of notnull() function, you can exclude or remove NA and NAN values. For example, applying str. strip (self, to_strip=None) [source] ¶ Remove leading and trailing characters. Final result: Remove characters from the right. To do that we can create various queries using SQL functions. function instead of pandas. This tutorial will cover some lesser-used but idiomatic Pandas capabilities that lend your code better readability, versatility, and speed, à la the Buzzfeed listicle. Sort a dataframe in Pandas based on multiple columns; Remove NaN values from a Pandas series; Concatenate Pandas dataframes (like a union function in SQL) Search pandas column with string contains and does not contain; Create Pandas dataframe with random numbers; Remove duplicate columns by name in Pandas; Dynamically update a plot in iPython. For example, if the table contains the full names of the people in the format as firstname comma surname (Farooq,Basit). Remove all strikethrough texts from cells with VBA code. The COMPRESS function compresses the character value and removes all of the blank spaces from the string. filter¶ DataFrame. Using Pandas' str methods for pre-processing will be much faster than looping over each sentence and processing them individually, as Pandas utilizes a vectorized implementation in C. remove spaces inside the string - net-informations. Originally it's a dict with multiple entries per keys. get Specifies the encoding to be used for strings returned by to_string, these are generally strings meant to be displayed on the. To remove the first and last character, we use as an example a simple string and also use a column of a table which contains some name. ToString & ", " " and use Option Strict On in case string(i) needs to be converted to another type for this useage. Hence data manipulation using pandas package is fast and smart way to handle big sized datasets. There are several pandas methods which accept the regex in pandas to find the pattern in a String within a Series or Dataframe object. create dummy dataframe. The index of the last character will be the length of the string minus one. translate(translation). Strip whitespaces (including newlines) or a set of specified characters from each string in the Series/Index from left and right sides. replace function is used to strip all the spaces of the column in pandas Let's see an Example how to strip leading and trailing space of column and all the spaces of column in a pandas dataframe. It means you don't need to import or have dependency on any external package to deal with string data type in Python. rstrip() to remove spaces from right side of the string and str. First, we remove the colon and any whitespace characters between it and the name. 0, it is assumed that all strings are unicode strings, and that the use of the word 'string' in the context of this document will generally refer to a Python 3. Convert a column in pandas dataframe from String to Float. translate(None, string. replace() function in pandas - replace a string in dataframe python In this tutorial we will learn how to replace a string or substring in a column of a dataframe in python pandas with an alternative string. Perhaps most importantly, these methods exclude missing/NA values automatically. If you need to modify only string in the specific cell, you need to use standard string methods. Don't forget the. Pandas stands for Python Data Analysis Library which provides high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming language. As data comes in many shapes and forms, pandas aims to be flexible with regard to handling missing data. how to remove all unwanted special characters. With the use of notnull() function, you can exclude or remove NA and NAN values. Basically DataFrame wraps Series type of data, Series data contains python's core data type such as string or int. iloc[, ], which is sure to be a source of confusion for R users. The same validation was applied to the Old_team list. Convert character column to numeric in pandas python: to_numeric() function converts character column (is_promoted) to numeric column as shown below. Remove(Int32) Returns a new string in which all the characters in the current instance, beginning at a specified position and continuing through the last position, have been deleted. Here is how we call it and convert the results to a float. to_numeric(df1. notnull()] Filtering String in Pandas Dataframe. strip (self, to_strip=None) [source] ¶ Remove leading and trailing characters. The explanation of this technique is: first we split the string on spaces no parameters for split is by default space. manipulation with pandas, I found a bit of difficulty is its datatypes in different depth of data. The first character in string s would be s[0] and the nth character would be at s[n-1]. Python regex pattern can also be used to find if each string contains a digit or not and converting them to “”. ) Let’s see what happens when we run this regex across our dataset: >>>. May 23, 2018 · From an efficiency standpoint, nothing can beat this: [code]s. slice(0, -5). Pandas also has excellent methods for reading all kinds of data from Excel files. It matches the first occurrence of that character in the string. The maketrans() method returns a translation table that maps each character in the intabstring into the character at the same position in the outtab string. Literal Characters. Dec 20, 2017 · Breaking Up A String Into Columns Using Regex In pandas.